Cold Weather Increases Risks of Impaction Colic in Horses

The weather has turned drastically colder in just the last few days on Delmarva and snow has coated the ground in New Castle and Kent counties.  Horse owners should be watching their animals carefully for the warning signs of impaction colic.  Impaction colics are typically more common in the winter as horses do not consume as much water when it is cold or when the temperature of their water is cold.  Dry feed material slows down in the digestive tract and can become stuck or impacted in several locations in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.  Places where the horse’s intestines fold upon itself (flexures) and decrease in size  are common locations for impactions to occur.

Monitoring how much water horses are consuming as well as manure production, can help a horse owner know when to be concerned about the possibility of an impaction colic as signs and symptoms of an impaction colic can be more subtle then other types and more easily missed if you aren’t paying close attention.  Keeping horses stalled and therefore restricting movement as we tend to do when the weather is cold or snowy, can also affect motility or movement of feedstuffs through the GI tract.

Offering horses water that is slightly warmed as well as water that is flavored with some type of electrolyte or even simple drink mix can help increase water consumption.  I have a senior mare at home that is prone to impaction colics.  We always have strawberry lemonade powdered drink mix on hand in our barn cabinet as we discovered many years ago during an impaction colic episode that she loves that flavor and will drink that flavored water readily.  Having salt available for free choice consumption or adding a small amount to a horses daily grain ration can also help to increase a horse’s appetite for water.

For more information on impaction colic and hydration in horses, please visit the following:

http://hagyard.com/custdocs/Impaction%20Colic%20and%20Hydration-Frazer.pdf

http://www.myhorseuniversity.com/resources/eTips/January_2010/Didyouknow

For more information on winter water for horses, read our older post:

http://extold.anr.udel.edu/equine/2012/12/05/winter-water-for-horses/

 

 

 

 

Manure Management Strategies-Help Your Horse, the Farm AND Protect Our Water FREE Webcast

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Date: Dec. 9, 2014

Time: 7-8 p.m. EST

Location: Online Webinar

FREE WEBCAST! Did you know that each horse makes about 50lbs of manure, EVERY DAY?  Excess nutrients, found in the manure and urine, My Horse Universitycan get into the ground and surface waters, potentially making it undrinkable. Both nationally and internationally, water quality is becoming a very serious issue.  The good news is that properly managing the manure and pastures is neither difficult, nor impossibly expensive.  This webinar will explain how to properly utilize Best Management Practices, BMPs, allowing a farm to flourish,  stay productive and protect our water, a most precious resource.  BMPs are practical, cost-effective and science based techniques that may be already getting used on your farm or boarding facility, so watch this webinar to find out how to keep the horse, the farm and the water stay its best.  To participate in this free webcast, click on the link below to register.

http://events.anr.msu.edu/event.cfm?folder=MHUWebcastWater

Winter Care for Horses- Free Recorded Webinar

My Horse UniversityWith temperatures dropping rapidly over the past week on Delmarva, horse owners should pay extra attention to the care of their horses during the winter season.  Often caretakers have a tendency to spend less time in the barn during the winter but there are some special considerations to keep in mind for winter horse care.  This is a recorded webinar so it can be viewed at any time.  Topics include forage quality and forage alternatives, changes in exercise routines, and clipping and blanketing.

About the Presenter: Nettie Liburt grew up on eastern Long Island, NY and has been a life-long horseperson. She spent 11 years as a 4-H member of the East End Equestrians, and consequently is a strong advocate of horsemanship, proper horse care and animal welfare. Nettie received her Master of Science degree in Animal Science from Rutgers University in 2005, and earned her PhD in January, 2011 (Equine Exercise Physiology & Nutrition). Her research focused on the effects of age and exercise training on endocrine control of the cortisol response and insulin resistance. She worked as a Technical Equine Nutritionist for the Kent Nutrition Group/Blue Seal Feeds for 3 1/2 years, and is now an independent consultant on equine nutrition, exercise physiology and equine product development.

http://www.myhorseuniversity.com/resources/webcasts/wintercare

Renovating or Planting New Pasture or Hay Field? Part 6: Managing Pasture and Hay Fields for Long-term Health

Part 6: How Do I Manage My Stand So It Stays Healthy and Productive?

In Part IV, I discussed the advantages of planting into moist soil during the ideal planting window for the selected forage species. I then discussed the planting options such as conventional seedbed preparation and no-till seeding. Along with these options, I discussed the need for calibration of the planter or drill to ensure the use of the proper number of pure live seed (PLS) per acre. Let us assume that the new planting has emerged from the soil so it is time to think about how to properly manage the new seeding to ensure a successful establishment and long-term productivity.

Usually even before the seed germinates, grazers want to know when they can return animal to the pasture to graze it. Hay producers have an easier time deciding when to begin using a new field especially for fall planted fields since cool-season grasses will signal their successful establishment by flowering in late spring or early summer the year following seeding.

For new pastures, the key to long-term health of the pasture is to wait about 12 to 18 months before grazing a new field. This means that the new pasture will need to be hayed at least once and possibly several times in the year following fall seeding. From a practical viewpoint, few grazers will wait 12+ months since it means not grazing the field until the second spring following fall seeding. At a minimum, a new fall-seeded pasture should be hayed in late spring or early summer the year following seeding and then allowed to regrow to a height of 8 to 12 inches before grazing is begun. It is possible to plant in the fall and begin grazing first thing the following spring but you will be sacrificing stand health and longevity with this practice.

Nutrient management plans call for a new soil test once every three years but a yearly sample will help the grazer manage the pasture better. This is very important if nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs are used to stimulate the productivity of a pasture. Even without N fertilizer applications, the natural deposition of urine and feces in a pasture creates small areas where the process of nitrification produces acidity that can significantly lower soil pH in the small area. Higher stocking rates and intensive pasture rotations will result in more uniform spreading of the urine and feces (especially for ruminant animals); and therefore, a greater proportion of the pasture will be impacted by lower pH (more acid soil conditions). Since it can take a year for lime to move an inch down through the soil, yearly soil testing will allow the grazer to begin neutralizing soil acidity as it is produced by the soil N-cycle.

Another aspect of soil fertility to consider is the use of fall applied N to improve the rooting of pasture plants as well as help stimulate growth the following spring for early grazing. Although the practice has long been used in the turfgrass industry, those of us in forage management are just realizing the potential benefits to pastures of fall N applications. Small amounts of fall N (about 30 lbs N/acre) should be applied in mid-October and mid-November since at these times topgrowth has ceased but the deep soil layers are still relatively warm. The N stimulates further root growth creating pasture plants with deeper and larger root systems as they enter the winter period. Some of the N is stored in the plant and available to stimulate topgrowth the following spring as the hours of daylight increase and air temperatures warm. This type of fertilization makes for a stronger plant going into the summer months (greater rooting depth and therefore greater available soil water to draw on) and can improve the competitiveness of the pasture grasses against weeds.

Probably the number one key to maintaining the health and competitiveness of a pasture is to use rotational grazing where plants are allowed to fully recover from the prior grazing period (grow to a height of 8 to 12 inches or more) and the grazing interval is kept short enough that the same plants are not grazed over and over again during a rotation cycle. Generally, this means rotating livestock out of a paddock or grazing cell within three days of moving the animals into the paddock. This time can be stretched to as much as a week but the more rapidly the animals are moved among paddocks in the rotational grazing scheme the healthier the pasture. Another aspect to using rotational grazing is to not put animals on pasture when soil conditions are too wet when the presence of animals can lead to compaction issues. Not grazing when plants are under drought stress is also a key consideration. Use the extra forage produced during the spring and fall to make hay that can support animals on a heavy use pad during periods of wet weather, drought, or other conditions leading to poor pasture growth.

Another method used to maintain healthy and vigorous pastures is to periodically overseed pastures in the fall with grasses and/or legumes. Some producers do this every year while others do it every couple of years. In most cases, the new seedlings must compete against the established plants in the pasture so that there is often limited ‘take’ from the germinating seed. However in the weaker areas of the pasture stand, there will be more light, water, nutrients, and space for the seedlings so establishment will be better in these areas. The weak areas would be where weeds could become established but by overseeding the pastures weed encroachment is limited or prevented.

The species to use for overseeding should be those species that can grow rapidly especially in the cool conditions of late summer and early fall. This would include such species as the ryegrasses, festulolium, ladino white clover, and red clover. Although just broadcasting the seed over the surface and then using a chain harrow or other implement to slightly cover the seed has been used, the best seeding method is to use a no-till drill and drill the seed into the soil. Seeding rates typically used are about one-quarter that of a normal new pasture seeding rate since most of the seed will be planted where established plant competition will not allow the new seedlings to establish successfully.

Finally, the producer can manage the balance of legumes and grasses in the pasture by his/her fertilization practices. Potassium and phosphorus applications along with 1 to 2 lbs of boron per acre per year and maintaining a near neutral soil pH (6.5-7.0) will encourage legume growth. If the percentage of legume is too high and the risk of bloat is too great, N application to encourage grass growth can be used to lower the percentage of legume in a pasture. Grasses with their fibrous root system are much more competitive for applied N than are the tap-rooted legumes. The available N will stimulate the grass and help it shade the legumes as well as change the proportion of legume to grass biomass.

This article was submitted by Dr. Richard Taylor, Extension Agronomist, University of Delaware.  Dr. Taylor can be reached at rtaylor@udel.edu

 

Free Webinar: Disaster Preparedness for Horse Owners September 16th

EXtension logoSeptember 16th- 7:00 pm EDT

When disaster strikes, a horse’s instinct and its owner’s preparation is the horse’s best chance for survival. Disaster preparation includes training your horse to load in a trailer under stressful circumstances, having an animal evacuation plan, and ensuring your horse can be identified with proper paper work. Join My Horse University and eXtension Horses FREE webinar on Tuesday, September 16th at 7 PM EDT to learn about Giving Your Horse the Best Chance During Disasters. Register for the webcast. You must register by September 15th.  A link to the meeting will be emailed to you once you register.  Presenters: Karen Waite, Michigan State University and Scott Cotton, University of Wyoming.

 

Karen WaiteDr. Karen Waite, PhD | Michigan State University

Dr. Karen Waite is an Equine Extension Specialist in Michigan and teaches and advises Equine students in the MSU Department of Animal Science. In her Extension roles she coordinates the Adult Equine Extension program, the Michigan Equine Survey, and is the Director of Leadership Development for My Horse University. In addition, she oversees the Youth Equine Extension program and is active with eXtension Horse Quest.

 

Scott CottonDr. Scott Cotton | Extension Disaster Education Network

Scott cotton is a University of Wyoming Area Agriculture Educator and Extension Disaster Education Delegate. His experience of working over two decades with three various land grant universities is combined with his previous experience as a Deputy Sheriff, Firefighter and EMT to lead him to an active role in managing animal and agriculture disaster response efforts on a number of regional and national wildfires, floods, and severe winter storms. With a family background of raising horses since the mid- 1880’s, his perspective blends research-based principles with actual field experience helping horses and livestock survive disasters.

Presentation Summary: Participants in this webcast will learn practical things a horse owner should know, and can do, that will reduce risks to horses during fires, floods and storms.

This webcast is presented by My Horse University and the Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN).