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Workshop on WFRP slated for Tuesday

GEORGETOWN, Del. — Whole Farm Revenue Protection is now available in Delaware and nationwide. Some Delaware producers are already taking advantage of this emerging income insurance product to ensure operational cash flow. University of Delaware Cooperative Extension and the USDA Risk Management Agency are now offering a chance for Delaware producers to get a better understanding of this beneficial program

On Aug. 22, there will be an informational meeting at the Carvel Education Center, 16483 County Seat Highway, Georgetown, Delaware 19947 starting at 8:30 a.m. Speakers will include:

  • DDA Secretary of Agriculture Michael Scuse
  • DDA Deputy Secretary of Agriculture Kenny Bounds
  • Ben Thiel (Risk Management Agency, Spokane, WA)
  • Dr. Jarrod Miller (University of Maryland, Extension Ag Educator)
  • Don Clifton (Farmers First Services, Inc.)

WFRP topics will be covered during the workshop, including eligibility, basic coverage criteria, how commodities are counted, allowable revenue/expenses, and loss/claim information. After attending this workshop producers should be able to contact their crop insurance agents already knowing some of the basics of WFRP.

Whole-Farm Revenue Protection provides a risk management safety net for all commodities on the farm under one insurance policy. This insurance plan is tailored for any farm with up to $8.5 million in insured revenue, including farms with specialty or organic commodities (both crops and livestock), or those marketing to local, regional, farm-identity preserved, specialty or direct markets.

WFRP may be described as an umbrella policy covering a wide array of farm production, both insurable commodities and those for which insurance is not currently available. Many crops which are non-insurable individually are high revenue, high input ventures, involving relatively higher risk. Such crops can often represent a higher percentage of farm revenue than proportionate acreage.

Although WFRP is especially effective coverage for diversified operations with multiple crops and/or livestock, attractive coverage may be available for qualifying operations producing a single commodity.

WFRP protects your farm against the loss of farm revenue that you earn or expect to earn from:

  • Commodities you produce during the insurance period, whether they are sold or not;
  • Commodities you buy for resale during the insurance period; and
  • All commodities on the farm except timber, forest, forest products, and animals for sport, show or pets.

WFRP provides farm growth provisions. Operations that have been expanding over time may be allowed to increase their approved revenue amount based on an indexing procedure or, if you can show that your operation has physically expanded (land, animals, facilities, or production capacity) so it has the potential to produce up to 35 percent more revenue than the historic average, your insurance company may approve your operation as an expanding operation to reflect that growth in the insurance guarantee.

Nutrient manangement credits will be available to attendees. Register at, 302-831-2538 or 302-242-8806.

University of Delaware

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Dairy MPP Sign-up Delayed

Dairy MPP Sign-up Delayed

USDA has delayed sign-up for the 2018 Dairy Margin Protection Program (MPP) until Sept. 1.

“Delaying signup until Sept. 1, 2017, will allow County Offices to concentrate on national acreage reporting, emergency grazing requests and LFP applications,” notes Kathy Sayers, acting administrator of Farm Programs.

In the past, the enrollment officially ended Sept. 30. But the deadline has typically been extended into December to encourage more sign-up. No word in the current announcement when enrollment for 2018 will close.

The notice has a dateline of July 3, 2017, but it was buried at the bottom of the Dairy MPP web page.

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‘Soy Milk’ or ‘Bean Slurry?’

|  By: Jim Dickrell

The Good Foods Institute (GFI) submitted a letter to the Food and Drug Administration today, arguing soy-based beverages should be allowed to be labeled as milk. The reasoning: Consumers know and refer to it as milk.

“Consumers refer to soy milk as soy milk. The term clearly communicates that soy milk is a form of milk that is made of soy. Likewise, rice noodles are noodles made of rice, and gluten-free bread is a form of bread that does not contain gluten. FDA should provide clarity that such straightforward terms are acceptable,” argues Jessica Almy, GFI Policy Director.

The circular logic grew immediate response from Jim Mulhern, President and CEO of the National Milk Producers Federation: “Ironically, in GFI’s first request to FDA in March, the organization admitted that in China – supposedly the original source of ‘soy milk’ – the more common term used in Mandarin for soy beverages is ‘dòu jiāng,’ which translates to bean slurry. At least that is a more accurate and legally compliant product description.”

Mulhern adds: “The efforts of GFI and other groups to alter food standards that have been in place for decades – allowing manufacturers of imitation dairy foods to append a plant name like almond, soy, hemp or quinoa in front of legally defined dairy terms such as milk, cheese, yogurt and ice cream – falsely suggests that the products are nutritionally equivalent. They are not. This is a transparent attempt to profit from milk’s good name by emulating the wording, but not the superior nutrition, of our products. It is misleading and deceptive to allow these nutritionally inferior imitators to use our hard-won reputation to their advantage.”

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9 Tips to Achieve High Quality Corn Silage

Corn silage is the foundation of many winter feeding programs. It provides an excellent source of energy that can reduce the costs of providing energy in a cow’s diet while also serving as a digestible fiber source. The details outlined below can help ensure that high quality feed is preserved.

1. Spend time getting equipment ready before harvest

General maintenance, such as greasing equipment and sharpening knives, needs to be done well in advance of the anticipated chopping date. Advance planning is important for a timely harvest at the proper moisture content.

2. Harvest timing

Harvesting at the correct moisture promotes favorable fermentation in the silage crop and decreases storage losses, so moisture content should be the determining factor for when to harvest. For bunkers, silage should contain between 30% to 35% dry matter (65% to 70% moisture). Upright silos and bags should contain 35% to 40% dry matter (60% to 65% moisture).

3. Correct length of chop:

Silage needs to be chopped finely enough for good packing to quickly eliminate oxygen and establish a good fermentation process. The chop length needs to be long enough to promote cud chewing. Thus, the recommended theoretic length of chop (TLC) is a compromise between these two factors.

Alfalfa haylage or silage = 3/16″

Unprocessed corn silage = 3/8″ to 1/2″

Processed (kernel processor) corn silage = 3/4″.

4. Adjusting silage choppers with on-line kernel processors

The optimum moisture content of silage harvested with a chopper containing a kernel processor is 62% to 65% (35% to 38% dry matter) to capture additional starch accumulation in the corn kernels. Most of the corn kernels should be pulverized to a similar size. To optimize starch digestion and provide adequate effective fiber, the recommendation is to cut to .75″ theoretical length with an initial roller clearance of 0.12″.

5. Keep knives sharp and properly adjusted throughout the filling process

Sharp knives prevent the shredding of silage, resulting in a more uniform chop. This allows for maximum forage compaction, good fermentation and sufficient particle size to prevent health problems in the cow.

6. Fill silos rapidly

Silos should be filled quickly to help eliminate air from the feed. Silos should be filled within a week to prevent dark brown and black bands within the silo. Fill bunkers from the back to the front, adding forage on a wedge and not from the bottom to the top in layers.

7. Pack, pack, and pack some more

Tightly-packed silage ferments more quickly and contains fewer yeasts and molds than loosely packed silage. Packing silage helps decrease the size of oxygen pockets, resulting in fermentation end products the cow can use better to make milk.

8. Cover silos immediately after filing

Bunkers or piles of silage need to be covered with 6 mil plastic tarps and weighted with tires (tires should touch each other) immediately after filling. The sides of bunkers also should be lined with plastic. Upright silos should be leveled and capped with a silo cap immediately after completion of filling.

9. Let silage ferment 3 to 4 weeks before feeding

Unfermented feed is higher in fermentable sugars and can cause cows to go off-feed. Gradually transitioning cows over seven to 10 days to newly-fermented silage is recommended. Data suggests that fermentation and maximum percentage of available starch may not be achieved until four months after ensiling.

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Is There a Genetic Limit to Milk Production?

Cow comfort and herd management, not genetics, is limiting production in most herds, say these geneticists.

With herd averages approaching 40,000 lb of milk per cow and the single lactation record nearly double that, it begs the question: Are we approaching the genetic limits of milk production.

In a word: No, say Kent Weigel, a geneticist with the University of Wisconsin and Chad Dechow, a geneticist with Pennsylvania State University.

“We really aren’t,” says Weigel. The same question was asked 40 years ago when Beecher Arlinda Ellen produced 55,561 lb of milk in a 365-day lactation. That record wasn’t broken for 19 years. But then, the record toppled—again and again and again. Last year, Ever-Green-View My Gold-ET, set a new single lactation milk production record with 77,480 lb in 365 days. In percentage terms, My Gold out-did Ellen by nearly 40%!

“I think we have a little way to go before we reach the limit,” says Dechow. “If you look at the Predicted Transmitting Ability for milk on these record cows, they’re just slightly above average.”

The other way to look at, says Weigel, is to consider feed intake as a multiple of the maintenance requirement. In the 1980 and 1990s, top cows were producing maybe five times their body maintenance levels. “We didn’t have any cows at 6 or 7X maintenance; now we do,” he says.

“So there’s no evidence we’re hitting a limit, but at some time, we might simply reach the physical capacity of the udder, I guess.”

At what cost?

“To me, it more a question of cost,” says Weigel. “Is the extra pound of milk worth the cost of producing it, and is it my best strategy for profitability? If I have to spend 99¢ to get $1 back, is it worth it? Is increasing production per cow the lowest hanging fruit on my farm?”

Selecting for larger cows, with bigger frames and more rumen capacity, is not the answer, say both Weigel and Dechow. “Larger is not more efficient; larger is actually less efficient,” says Dechow. “We actually need smaller cows to be more efficient at current levels of milk production.”

Look at Jerseys. Some Jerseys are making 40,000 lb of milk, and they don’t have nearly the size and scale of Holsteins.

Health traits are becoming a larger proportion of selection indexes, which is a good thing. Unhealthy cows simply burn through calories to power their immune system. “Healthy cows produce more,” says Weigel

A bigger issue might be that farmers are placing less urgency on reproduction than they were a decade ago, says Dechow. Many herds are now reliant on reproductive hormone protocols to get cows bred. But if those tools are ever lost, it could become a problem.

Inbreeding is also a concern, and it continues to increase. Bull studs are doing a good job of weeding out detrimental genetic recessives. The real issue, says Dechow, is that the industry is likely weeding out just the worst recessive genes with obvious problems. “The ones that we don’t see as major recessives may be causing more subtle problems,” he says.

Still, both Weigel and Dechow say industry selection indexes do a pretty good job of balancing production, health traits and conformation. While every herd doesn’t need a customized index, the geneticists say each dairy owner should think about what he or she is trying to accomplish with the genetics they buy. “If there are a diversity of goals, there will be diversity of selection and inbreeding won’t be as big of a concern,” says Weigel.

Genetics isn’t really the issue limiting production and efficiency, he says. “The limiting factors in most herds are cow comfort and herd management.

“Most herds are doing 70% to 80% of things right, and are getting good production. But if they can get 99% right, wow! That’s when you see production jump.”


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What is the Effect of Rain Damage on Hay?

Hay that has been cut and then rained on can lose quality in four ways. These include: 1) leaching of soluble carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, 2) increased and prolonged plant respiration, 3) leaf shattering, and 4) microbial breakdown of plant tissue.

Leaching of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals is usually at its highest when the hay has dried somewhat and we then have a prolonged rain. Rainfall right after cutting usually results in less leaching of nutrients and a quick splash-and-dash shower normally doesn’t result in large losses of these nutrients on freshly cut hay.

Increased or prolonged respiration occurs when hay is not allowed to dry sufficiently to stop the plant’s metabolic processes. Hay must reach moisture content of less than 30 percent for respiration to be reduced to acceptable levels. Hay that is rained on when relatively green will continue to respire for longer periods of time, resulting in the loss of forage nutrients and dry matter yield.

Likewise, partially dried hay that is rained on can continue to respire for longer periods resulting in lower quality and yield of hay.

Increased leaf shatter is another problem associated with hay that has been rained on. Wet hay usually means more mechanical handling of the hay in order to dry it. Since leaves tend to dry quicker than stems, any increased raking or tedding tends to shatter leaves from stems. Since more of the soluble nutrients are in the leaf tissue, the loss of leaf blades while raking and baling can reduce hay quality substantially. Loss of leaf blades can also result in reduction of dry matter yields.

Microbial breakdown of plant tissue occurs when fungi, molds and other microorganisms begin to feed on the downed hay. These organisms develop rapidly in warm-moist conditions and feed on the dead plant material. Hay that is lying on the ground and remains wet for long time periods becomes a perfect environment for these organisms to live and breed. They can quickly consume plant nutrients and destroy plant cell structure resulting in loss of dry matter yield, nutrient content and given time, will completely rot the hay.

What are the consequences of hay being rained on? Research conducted at the University of Kentucky by Michael Collins indicated that we can lose up to 5 percent of the dry matter per inch of rain on cut hay. Digestibility can be reduced by 10 percent or more due to leaching of nutrients and leaf shatter. A similar study done at Iowa State University reported protein loses of 3 percent and total digestible nutrient reduction of 4.6 percent.

One fact seems to hold true, you still cannot tell what the actual quality of the hay is until you have it tested. Testing it is your best strategy for determining the nutrient quality you will get from the hay. Sampling rained-on hay will give you the information you need to design a supplementation program that will keep your animals in good shape during the winter feeding period. Your local county Extension Educator can help you with sampling techniques, hay probes, and testing. For a small investment of time and money, testing will pay off big in the health and nutrition of your herd.

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Florida Scientist: Calves Conceived in Winter Perform Better

Cows and humans have something in common: If you take better care of the mother during pregnancy, her children are likely to be healthier – and this impact should last a lifetime, a University of Florida scientist says.

In the case of cows, cool conditions are key. A new UF/IFAS study shows calves conceived during winter went on to produce more calves and milk.

That’s a critical finding for dairy farmers and for people looking for a nutritious glass of milk because each Florida cow produces an average of 2,408 gallons of milk per year.

“This is important to figure out because maybe we can improve the conditions from conception on in order to get an animal to do as well as possible throughout its existence,” said Albert De Vries, a UF/IFAS associate professor of animal sciences. “The current thinking is that the environment plays an important role from at least conception on.”

Florida has about 124,000 dairy cows, the study said.

For the study, researchers examined 667,000 cow lactation records for the years 2000 through 2012 from the Dairy Herd Information Association database. They obtained weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Scientists considered a heat and humidity index higher than 68 to cause heat stress in the cows.

Through these records, De Vries and lead author Pablo Pinedo of Colorado State University documented effects of heat stress during conception on the calf’s performance when it becomes a cow. A calf grows into a cow about two years after birth.

They found that calves conceived in the cool season fared better from day 1 of their pregnancies. Now researchers want to know whether the biological mechanism that causes that effect on day 1 or later.

“Perhaps we can do something during early gestation, even if the mom is still under heat stress,” De Vries said.

The study is published in the Journal of Dairy Science.

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Be Aware of Drug Testing Changes

By Gabe Middleton 

Preventing drug residues in milk continues to be a key area that dairy producers should focus on, but starting on July 1, 2017, that prevention will develop another layer. The tetracycline screening pilot program will begin, and no less than 1 out of 15 tanker loads of milk will be tested for oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and tetracycline. The tolerance level for the drug will be 300 ppb.

This testing pilot program represents an opportunity for dairy producers to re-evaluate how the tetracycline class of drugs is used on the farm. Oxytetracycline injectable is labeled for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia and infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

Many producers may use oxytetracycline in an extra-label indication for treatment of mastitis, metritis, or topically for the treatment of digital dermatitis (hairy heel warts). Under the direction of your veterinarian, extra-label drug use is legal as long as established withdrawals periods are adjusted when necessary.

Many producers, veterinarians, and hoof trimmers use the tetracycline class of drugs to wrap feet affected by digital dermatitis. This represents a risk of milk residue under the upcoming tetracycline screening pilot program.  Wrapping a foot with tetracycline (powder or injectable) and not withholding milk puts the producer at risk for a milk residue violation.

FARAD (Food Animal Drug Residue Avoidance Databank) recommends a 24-hour milk withhold when a cow’s foot is wrapped with tetracycline. While tetracycline foot wraps aren’t directly affected by the veterinary feed directive legislation, the powder tetracycline product switched from over-the-counter to prescription status on January 1, 2017.

Tetracycline powders are only available with a veterinary prescription and a valid veterinary/client/patient relationship.  Anyone applying tetracycline to a foot wrap should pay close attention to the amount of the drug they apply. More drug creates more risk for milk residue. Only a small amount should be applied directly to the lesion. Experts have suggested that a 2 gram dose is the maximum that should be applied to a wrap.

Small herds more vulnerable

Smaller herds need to be even more diligent in monitoring and obeying milk withhold guidelines due to the lack of dilution factor. While larger herds may be at less risk, they should still obey the withhold guidelines on all tetracycline products to maintain the integrity of the milk they sell. Ultimately, the dairy industry can’t justify improper drug withholds based simply on dilution.

This program should also renew the producers’ commitment to lameness in general and digital dermatitis specifically. This is an excellent time to review footbath protocols and scrutinize heifer facilities. We know that it’s critical to prevent hairy heel warts prior to first calving. Often times, cleanliness is a critical step in preventing digital dermatitis in heifer facilities.

While producers may view this new testing protocol as additional level of regulation, consider it another step in improving the quality and safety of the product that the dairy industry has to offer. Antibiotic use needs to be transparent on our dairies.

This program is another way for the industry to open the blinds and let the public see what we are doing to care for cows and provide a safe product. As long as the tetracycline class of drugs are used properly, the dairy industry will have nothing to hide.


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Using antibiotics responsibly, part 1

PARSIPPANY, N.J. — When we do need to use antibiotics, we know that we need to use them responsibly (in both animals and people) to help keep them effective and available for decades to come. What are some of the steps to help make this happen? In caring for cattle, responsible use of antibiotics involves many things and people, but there’s one person who should continue to be part of these decisions — a veterinarian.

Veterinarians strive to prescribe antibiotics in a responsible way.

“As veterinarians, we have an ethical responsibility to make sure that we preserve the efficacy of antibiotics for future generations and ensure continued access to certain classes of antibiotics in food animals,” said Robin Falkner, DVM, managing veterinarian at Zoetis. “We use our medical training when we prescribe these medicines to restore or maintain animal health and well-being, and we take the responsibility of using them very seriously.”

Veterinarians strive to prescribe antibiotics in a responsible way to not only help treat infections but also to help reduce the unintended risk of antimicrobial resistance. This includes helping producers:

  • Decrease the need to use antibiotics. Doing things to help keep animals from ever getting sick is our top priority, Dr. Falkner said. This means looking at disease management and making tweaks that can help prevent disease outbreaks.
  • Ensure antibiotics are used only when they are needed. Antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infection. Veterinarians help identify if a bacterial disease is present or likely to be present, and then can recommend the right antibiotic to help address the disease challenge. For instance, there are four key bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease, and we can recommend an antibiotic that will be effective against these pathogens, Dr. Falkner said.
  • Reduce the need for additional antibiotic treatments. Animals sometimes get sick, so when we do need to treat these animals, our priority becomes getting the highest treatment success, Dr. Falkner said. There are different classes of antibiotics that work in different ways. For example, a triamilide macrolide, such as DRAXXIN®(tulathromycin) Injectable Solution, works by interfering with protein synthesis in target pathogens, and a cephalosporin, such as EXCEDE® (ceftiofur crystalline free acid) Sterile Suspension, kills bacteria by destroying cell walls. If you have the right antibiotic that works the first time, you can use fewer antibiotics and have fewer animals exposed to multiple classes of antibiotics.
  • Avoid antibiotic residues in meat. Proper administration and following label instructions are important to ensure product efficacy and safety. This means reviewing treatment protocols with your veterinarian about the correct dose, route of administration and adhering to proper withdrawal times.

See the results of a good relationship.

“What I find is, when the veterinarian understands what’s important to the producer in the long-term, the veterinarian can make recommendations beyond just treating the immediate animal that’s sick,” Dr. Falkner said. “It takes effort, and the intent of both parties, to develop that type of relationship and see the results that this relationship can bring.”

For Brenda Paul, owner at Timberlawn Farm in Paris, Kentucky, it means she can keep making improvements. Having a veterinarian’s input enhances animal health decisions that can help maintain the responsible use of antibiotics.

“An outside opinion is a very helpful thing to have,” Paul said.  “We’re constantly evaluating what’s working, what’s not working and what changes we need to make.”

Her veterinarian helps in evaluating data to see if they’re heading in the right direction, if there’s a treatment need, or if they need a change in the protocol.

“We’ve been working together on developing this program over all the years we’ve been in the business,” Paul said. “And that will continue for many years.”

Next up: Did you know that the effectiveness of an antibiotic also plays a role in responsible use? Part 2 of this series will explore the relationship, so stay tuned. In the meantime, keep working with a veterinarian on the responsible use of antibiotics and find more information at

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION FOR DRAXXIN: DRAXXIN has a pre-slaughter withdrawal time of 18 days in cattle. Do not use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Do not use in animals known to be hypersensitive to the product. See full Prescribing Information.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION FOR EXCEDE: People with known hypersensitivity to penicillin or cephalosporins should avoid exposure to EXCEDE. EXCEDE is contraindicated in animals with known allergy to ceftiofur or to the ß-lactam group (penicillins and cephalosporins) of antimicrobials. Inadvertent intra-arterial injection is possible and fatal. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. Pre-slaughter withdrawal time is 13 days following the last dose. See full Prescribing Information.


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2017 Milk Run

CAMDEN, Del. — More than 90 runners took off in torrential downpour at a cool 50 degrees on May 13 at Middletown High School to compete in the 5th annual 5K Milk Run/Walk held by the Delaware Farm Bureau Foundation and the New Castle County Farm Bureau. State Sen. David Sokola led the race on his bicycle, as he has every year. There was a great turnout from the Alfred G. Waters FFA and the Everett Meredith Middle School FFA.

While final figures are not yet in, organizers are certain that the goal of raising at least $10,000 to meet the annual needs of The Ministry of Caring’s “Milk For Children Fund” will be met. Net proceeds from the event will go to help MOC’s Emmanuel Dining Room serve a nutritious glass of milk to every child in need who walks through their doors. A secondary beneficiary is The Neighborhood House Inc. in Middletown, a United Way partner agency which helps struggling families get back on their feet.

More than 30 agribusinesses, dairies and farm families provided sponsorship for the race. Major sponsors included Land O’Lakes, Syngenta, New Castle County Farm Bureau, Willey Farms and Hy-Point Dairy.

“After five years I continue to be amazed at the support from the agriculture community for our event — everyone from FFA groups and small dairy farms to large milk processors and everyone in between, they rise to the cause,” said Stewart Ramsey, NCCFB president.

In the past, the race has been staged at the Appoquinimink High School in Middletown, but a new location was necessitated by DelDOT’s Route 301 construction. Middletown High School made their grounds available.

Laura Simpson, DFBF project coordinator, said she liked the new venue because there was more room.

“We appreciate being able to use Middletown High School,” she said. Next year’s venue has not been determined.

“Despite the pouring rain, runners were in great spirits,” Simpson said. “Ninety-four runners finished the race, all within an hour, which I feel was impressive.”

The winner, Rick Short, finished in 20 minutes, 11.2 seconds. Only seconds behind him were Gerardo Rivas, Jay Fenton and Godfrey Thuku. Jonathan Fitch came in less than 22 minutes.

Leaders among female runners were Lissy Haney and Casey Hagy at less than 23 minutes. Missy Lipscomb, Heather Guerrieri and Annika Roberts were third through fifth, respectively, all in less than 26 and a half minutes.

Runners ranged in age from 5 to 67, and included a great turnout from the FFA. Some participants were from Maryland, Pennsylvania and Maryland.

During the past five years, 800 runners and walkers have participated in the event, raising awareness of the critical need for more milk for less fortunate children in the local community. In the first four years, almost $75,000 has been raised in this effort to buy milk for children in Delaware.

If rain doesn’t dampen the spirits of runners, will mud? The Foundation will sponsor an inaugural “Mad Bull Mud Run” on Aug. 19 at Delaware State Fairgrounds, with plenty of mud and challenging but fun obstacles to overcome. Net proceeds will go to support the Foundation’s mission to build awareness, understanding and positive public perception about Delaware’s farm operations and fresh local food. The Foundation also raises funds to provide educational materials, grants, scholarships and to feed hungry Delawareans.

For information about the mud run or if you wish to be a named sponsor, contact Laura Simpson at the Delaware Farm Bureau at 302-697-3183 or via email at Find additional information on Delaware Farm Bureau Foundation, visit

Delaware Farm Bureau

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